What is a Carburetor- Working and Types

What is a Carburetor?

A carburetor is a mechanical equipment that helps mix air and fuel to speed up the combustion of an internal combustion engine. The carburetors supply an air-fuel mixture to the intake manifold (a device that supplies an air-fuel mixture to a cylinder) of the IC engine. It mixes the air and fuel so that it runs efficiently. In other words, a carburetor is a smart unit that mixes fuel and air in the right proportion according to the needs of the engine. 

The old models of carburetors only achieved this by letting air flow through the surface of the fuel, while latest models mix a certain amount of fuel with the air flow to achieve this. The carburetors are most commonly used in 2-stroke engines, petrol engines, 4-stroke engines and many other engines. But the diesel engines have no carburetors.  

The engine requires a mixture of fuel and engine to propel the vehicle. Nowadays, the exact amount of air and fuel an engine needs to move a vehicle varies from moment to moment, depending on several factors such as the vehicle's speed and travel time. This is a pipe that allows air and fuel to enter the engine through valves and mix them in different amounts to meet the needs of the engine under different operating conditions.

Carburetor Working 

When fuel mixes with air, it is converted into energy and burned in the engine's metal cylinders. The resulting energy drives most vehicles over land, water or air. A carburetor is a unit that makes a mixture of air and fuel in the precise ratio according to the demands of the engines. Therefore, it is nothing more than a mixture of air and fuel that is in the vehicle's engine. Modern car carburetors are often replaced by electronically controlled injection systems. This reduces fuel consumption and pollution, but carburetors are still present in older motorcycles and automobiles. The principle of operation of the carburetor is described here.

16+ Motorcycle Carburetor Diagram - Motorcycle Diagram - Wiringg.net |  Motorcycle, Mopar, Motocross

There are two rotary valves that are installed directly above and below the venturi. The upper valve, called the choke, is used to process or regulate the amount of air that flows through the carburetor. When the valve closes, the amount of air that can flow through is reduced, which means that the venturi draws in more fuel and supplies the engine with a fuel-rich mixture. This is especially useful if the engine has just started or if the car is cold and takes a long time to warm up. 

The second valve on the carburetor is the throttle valve. When the throttle is fully open, more air flows through the carburetor, drawing more fuel out of the pipes to the sides, giving the engine more power and power and making the car go faster. Because of this, the car accelerates when the accelerator pedal is depressed.

Types of Carburetors

1) Updraft Carburetor

In the upper suction carburetor, air enters from the bottom to the inside and flows through the top in the direction of flow upwards. The main disadvantages of this type are the very small mixing tube of the engine and the inability to deliver the mixed gas to the engine at the required speed when the vehicle is traveling at high speed. To overcome this shortcoming of the updraft carburetors, suction carburetors were chosen.

2) Downdraft Carburetor:

The downdraft carburetors are located higher than the intake manifold. These types of carburetors permit the fuel-air mixture to flow downward. With this type, the mixing tube and throat can significantly increase the engine speed even when the vehicle is traveling at high speed.

3) Constant Choke Carburetor:

With this type of carburetor, the air and fuel flow cross-sections are always constant and therefore remain constant. However, the pressure differential or low pressure that activates the air and fuel flow will depend on the needs or requirements of the engine. Zenith and Solex carburetors are essentially constant resistance carburetors.

4) Constant Vacuum Carburetor

It is a carburetor with different areas of air and fuel circulation depending on the needs of the engine. However, the degree of vacuum maintained is always the same in this process. Carter and S. U. are examples of constant vacuum carburetors.


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